Breast Cancer Awarness

Risk factors:

  • Positive family history
  • Early menarche
  • Late menopause
  • Nulliparity
  • Western food habits
  • Use of HRT
  • Obesity.
  • Around 15-20% of cases are genetically linked to the BRCA genes (1 &2).

Prevention & Screening:

  • Prevention strategies for BRCA mutated patients include prophylactic mastectomy.
  • Screening to detect breast cancer before it manifests is the most effective means of disease prevention in general.
  • Screening is done mainly by special images of the breast, known as mammography.
  • This is usually an ultrasound scan for ladies younger than 40 years who have a family history and an x-ray for older ladies. *Mammograms should ideally be done annually from age 40 till 70-75 years but in practice, every 2-3 years will also suffice.
  • Other less reliable, but useful methods include breast self examination monthly and a clinical breast examination by a health worker every 6 months.


  • Once breast cancer is suspected, diagnosis is confirmed by a scan and a biopsy.
  • If the disease is suspected to be advanced, staging scans to check disease spread elsewhere in the body are necessary.


  • If disease is localised, surgery is the main curative treatment.
  • Some patients need chemotherapy before or after surgery for prevention of disease spread.
  • Removal of the tumour with conservation of the breast is the standard of care. This is followed by postoperative radiotherapy.
  • In case of multicentric disease or where breast conservation is difficult or patient is unwilling, removal of the whole breast (mastectomy) is required.